History of Iran; Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter... and Spring

Milad Shakib user photo Milad Shakib Tuesday, June 19, 2018

History of Iran; Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter... and Spring

Although the wisdom of humankind in Iran is attributed to 40,000 years ago, archaeological findings reveal the existence of a variety of human beings in Iran in Paleolithic era. Iran, as one of the oldest civilizations along with other civilizations, such as Greece and Egypt, has always enjoyed an important position in the formation of human civilization in the eyes of historians and cultural scholars. During the history of Iran, the land of Iran has faced many ups and downs and various governments have ruled over it. Geography, life style, religion, and many other biological components of the people of this land have undergone various changes.

History of Iran; from the Medes to today
To better understand the history of Iran, historians determined a specific categorization:
1. Prehistory: A period before the recorded events, known mainly through archaeological discoveries, study, research, etc. The remains of the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras have been found in some parts of Iran.

2. Before the Medes: The Medes are known as the first human civilization in Iran, but before this civilization, civilizations were formed alongside some hills or cities of Iran, the most important of which were the civilizations of the Tepe Sialk, Jiroft, Tepe Gian, and Burned Town. This era dates back to 7,000 years ago.

3. From the Medes to Islam: The most important civilizations of ancient times were formed in this period. The Medes were Indo-European who settled in the 17th century BC in a land later known as Medes. After the Medes, four great empires were formed in Iran: Achaemenes, Selukians, Parthians and Sasanians. The Achaemenes Empire is considered as the first empire in the history of the world. The Achaemenes ruled over a large part of the world for 220 years (from 550 BC to 330 BC). The Achaemenes Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, his conquests were divided among his commanders, and most of his lands, the core of which was Iran, came to Silucos. In this way, Iran was ruled by the Selukian Empire. The Selukians ruled over West Asia from 64 to 32 BC. After some time, the Parthians expanded their influence and eventually succeeded in defeating the Selukians and forming the Parthian Empire. The Parthians ruled over Western Asia for 471 years (250 BC to 224 AD). After the Parthians, the Sassanid Empire ruled over Iran from 224 to 651 AD.

4. After Islam: The beginning of this era is coincided with the conquest of Iran by Muslims. Conquest of Iran by Muslims refers to the series of attacks on the Sassanian Empire in the 7th century, which began in 633 and lead to the complete collapse of the Sassanid Empire in 651 AD. The attacks also added Iran into the realm of the Islamic caliphate. The conquest of Iran was the beginning of a gradual process of Iranian conversion to Islam, which lasted for several centuries. Since then, various governments have been formed in Iran including Taherians, Saffarids, Samanids, Ziyaran, Ghaznavids, Seljukis, Khwarazmshahids and Ilkhanis respectively.

5. National Governments: This period coincided with the formation of governments that had more powerful central government compared to their predecessors. In this period Safavid, Afsharieh, Zandieh, Qajar, and Pahlavi governments ruled over Iran.

6. Islamic Republic of Iran: The Iranian Revolution was the revolution that transformed Iran from an absolute monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Its time span can be said to have begun in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations, and concluded in December 1979. Iran today has an area of 1,648,195 square kilometers, and according to the census of 2016, 79,926,270 people live in this country.

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